## What is Data 88S?

The official number of Data 88S is Data/Stat C88S. That numbering indicates that it the course is cross-listed in Data and Statistics.

Data 88S is an introduction to the theoretical underpinnings of the methods used in Data 8. It is intended for students who have taken some calculus and

• are intending to major in areas that require a strong foundation in probability and mathematical statistics, or
• are intending to minor in data science and want to see how theory and practice can enhance each other.

Data 88S will prepare students well for the probability and theoretical statistics that is covered in Data 100 and Data 131A.

## What requirements does Data 88S satisfy?

• Along with Data 8, Data 88S satisfies the Statistics requirement for the Economics and Business Administration majors.
• Data 88S satisfies the probability requirement of the minor in Data Science.

## Who can take Data 88S?

Data 88S is restricted to students who:

• Have not taken Stat 134, 140, 135, or 102; no credit will be given for Data 88S after these courses.
• Have taken one semester of calculus at the level of Math 16A, Math 10A, or Math 1A.
• Have taken or are currently taking Data 8 (DATA/CS/STAT/INFO C8)

All of the requirements are enforced because the course has been designed specifically for students who have the above background in math, programming, and statistical inference.

## What is the best way to succeed in Data 88S?

• Participate in lecture and discussion sections. The course staff do their best to create effective, efficient, and enjoyable sessions for students to learn.
• Read the textbook or your lecture notes, and go over the problems done in section, before attempting the homework. You should not expect to simply remember everything from lecture and section, especially after the first couple of weeks. If you have time, do the remaining problems in the textbook.
• Make a serious attempt at exercises by yourself before you seek help. The only way to become an independent problem solver (and, incidentally, to succeed in exams) is to try to solve problems independently. Your goal should be to increase the fraction of work you do by yourself, as the semester progresses.
• Study concepts, not formulas. Don’t scroll fast through the words in the textbook and only stop when you spot a formula. Learn how ideas fit together; don’t memorize solutions to exercises. Problems in exams (and in your next class or research or job) won’t fit neatly into boxes that you have seen before.
• Use Ed, go to office hours, make friends with whom you can study. But if you have friends who always seem to know how to do the problems while you don’t, thank them nicely and then politely ask them to go away. Yes, really. Staff will be happy to help you figure out the best way for you to begin to take charge of the material.